Labor unions who backed Gephardt and Dean in the Iowa caucuses are now faced with figuring out why their candidates did so poorly. One possibility is the negative campaigning at the end of the race contributed to Kerry's win. The two major unions who support Dean said they would double their efforts in an attempt to win in New Hampshire. However, the unions who supported Gephardt are unsure what their next step is, but stated they will support whoever is chosen as the Democratic presidential candidate.
See Steven Greenhouse, The New York Times, January 20, 2004